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Overview
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Overview

While the COVID-19 global pandemic continues to evolve, BD Biosciences stands strong to support critical scientific research to better understand and ultimately battle the COVID-19 outbreak. Now more than ever, BD Biosciences is committed to being your scientific partner of choice and providing you with the tools and support required to enable your COVID-19 research. We provide a comprehensive portfolio of research tools to facilitate discovery in the following areas of COVID-19 research: 

 

  • Viral immune response 

  • Cytokine analysis 

  • Vaccine research 

  • Biomarkers and therapeutics 

 
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Navigate this site to learn more about BD Biosciences’ solutions and their applications in COVID-19 research. All products mentioned on these pages are for research use only, except for the BD FACSLyric™ Flow Cytometer, which is a combined-function flow cytometer for both IVD and research use. Its use in COVID-19 is for research purposes only.

 

Icons showing Coronavirus, shield, lungs, needles and prescriptions.

For information on the comprehensive COVID-19 response efforts from BD—including product availability, status of BD operations and business continuity planning—visit bd.com/COVID-19.  

Biology of SARS-CoV-2

COVID-19, or coronavirus disease 2019, is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2). SARS-CoV-2 is a novel virus belonging to the coronavirus family, which includes strains responsible for the common cold as well as the viruses responsible for SARS and MERS. It is genetically related to the coronavirus responsible for the SARS outbreak in 2003.

 

SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped single-stranded RNA virus of the Coronaviridae family. Its genome encodes 29 proteins involved in the infection, replication and virion assembly process. Key structural proteins of the virus include the spike (S) glycoprotein, the envelope (E) protein and the matrix (M) transmembrane glycoprotein.1 Initial infection is believed to take place in nasal epithelial cells, which are rich in ACE-2 receptors.

 
Steps of Coronovirus multiplication in a cell.
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Adapted from Callaway E, 2020.2

Viral entry also depends on cathepsin B/L activity and protease activity of TMPRSS2. These receptors are found distributed throughout epithelial cells of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. The S protein from SARS-CoV-2 enables cellular receptor binding, membrane fusion and hemagglutinin activity. The S protein contains a receptor binding domain (RBD), which is the most variable region of its genome. The RBD binds the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) initiating viral uptake in human cells by endocytosis. The E and M proteins collaborate for viral envelope formation.1

 

Before entering a cell, SARS-CoV-2 needs to recognize and bind surface receptors such as ACE-2. From there, a cascade of sequential events take place to ensure successful viral infection and replication.2 The life cycle of SARS-CoV-2 includes the following: 

 

  • SARS-CoV-2 binds to ACE-2 receptor

  • SARS-CoV-2 is endocytosed

  • SARS-CoV-2 fuses with a vesicle and viral RNA is released

  • SARS-CoV-2 RNA is translated into proteins 

  • New SARS-CoV-2 virions are assembled

  • New SARS-CoV-2 virions are released

Types of immune responses to SARS-CoV-2

SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a multistep response from the host immune system:

 

  • First-line defense by the innate immune system with natural killer (NK) cells, macrophage activation and multinucleated giant cell formation

  • Proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine activation

  • Antigen presenting cells engulf and process SARS-CoV-2 antigens

  • T helper cells are activated by SARS-CoV-2 antigen 

  • Cytotoxic T cells and B cells are cross activated by T helper cells 

  • Immunological memory is formed for SARS-CoV-2 

 

When the immune system fails to control its immune defense response properly, severe forms of COVID-19 develop. 

 

 Three major phases have been described in COVID-19 disease:

 

  • Viremia phase

  • Acute (pneumonia) phase

  • Recovery phase

 

Severe forms of SARS-CoV-2 induced COVID-19 are associated with increased release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-6, Il-2, GM-CSF), also known as cytokine storm syndrome, hypercytokinemia or cytokine release syndrome, along with weak production of type I interferons (IFN-Is).3, 4

References

  1. Shang J, Wan Y, Luo C, et al. Cell entry mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020;117(21):11727-11734. doi:10.1073/pnas.2003138117 

  2. Callaway E. The race for coronavirus vaccines. Nature. 2020;580(7805):576-577. doi: 10.1038/d41586-020-01221-y

  3. Sa Ribero M, Jouvenet N, Dreux M, Nisole S. Interplay between SARS-CoV-2 and the type I interferon response. PLoS Pathog. 2020;16(7):e1008737. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1008737

  4. Blanco-Melo D, Nilsson-Payant BE, Liu WC, et al. Imbalanced host response to SARS-CoV-2 drives development of COVID-19. Cell. 2020;181(5):1036-1045.e9. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.04.026
Scientific Resources
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Scientific resources for COVID-19 research 

 

Poster

Immune Response to COVID-19

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As the COVID-19 pandemic continues worldwide, there is a pressing need to understand the biological mechanisms determining COVID-19 disease progression and severity. Early research studies have reported dysfunctional immune responses and alterations in the immune cell composition in COVID-19 patients. The extent of the immune dysregulation appears to correlate with the severity of COVID-19 disease according to the literature. A deeper understanding of the interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and the host immune system will be important to further understand the pathogenesis of this disease and identify biomarkers that may potentially be used to predict and monitor COVID-19 progression. 

 

The “COVID-19: Snapshot of the Immune Response” poster depicts the role different immune cells play in either a functional or dysfunctional immune response to SARS-CoV-2. 

 
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eBook

Multicolor Flow Cytometry Panels for COVID-19 Research

Flow cytometry can play a critical role in the study of COVID-19 immune response due to the ability to simultaneously measure expression of multiple proteins at the single-cell level. Flow cytometry is routinely used to assess immunophenotypic and functional changes (cytokine production, proliferation, cytotoxicity) in response to viral infection. 

 

The “Multicolor Flow Cytometry Panels for COVID-19 Research” eBook contains a collection of multicolor flow cytometry panels and related protocols selected based on their relevance to the immunological changes observed in COVID-19 patients. The panels were designed using best panel-design practices and their performance, defined as the ability to clearly resolve populations of interest. 

Download eBook
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Webinar

Monitoring the Immune System to Fight COVID-19

An overview of preliminary studies documenting the immunological changes observed in COVID-19 patients was recently presented by Dr. Maurice O’Gorman (Children's Hospital Los Angeles) and Dr. Andrea Cossarizza (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia School of Medicine).

View Webinar
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Research Highlights

 

Reference Sample Size Comparative Analysis Immunological Changes

Wang F, et al. The laboratory tests and host immunity of COVID-19 patients with different severity of illness. JCI Insight. 2020 May;5(10):e137799. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.137799 

 

 

65 COVID‑19 Patients

Extremely Severe vs Severe vs Moderate Cases 

Total lymphocytes, total CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells (absolute count)
Total T cells, CD4+ cells (%);
CD45RA+ Naïve Tregs (%)
CD4+ CD28+ and CD8+ CD28+ T cells (%)
CD86+ dendritic cells (%)
CD4+ CD45RO+ memory T cells (%)
HLA-DR+ activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (%)
NK cells (%)
PD-1+ exhausted CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (%)
CD4+ and CD8+ T cells producing IFN-γ(%)
Serum amounts of IL-6 and IL-10 (pg/mL)

Chen G, et al. Clinical and immunological features of severe and moderate coronavirus disease 2019. J Clin Invest. 2020 May;130(5):2620-2629. doi: 10.1172/JCI137244

21 COVID‑19 Patients

Severe vs Moderate Cases 

Total lymphocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (absolute count)
Total B cells (%)
CD45RA+ naïve Tregs (%)
CD4+ T cells producing IFN-γ (%)
Serum amounts of IL-6, IL-10, TNF, IL-2R (pg/mL)

Qin C, et al. Dysregulation of immune response in patients with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Jul;71(15):762-768. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa248

452 COVID‑19 Patients

Severe vs Moderate Cases

Total lymphocytes, total T cells, CD4+ T cells (absolute count)
CD4+ cells (%)
CD4+ CD45RA+ naïve T cells (%)
CD8+ CD28+ cells (%)
Tregs (%)
CD4+ CD45RO+ memory T cells (%)
Serum amounts of TNF, IL-2R, IL-10, IL-6, IL-8 (pg/mL)

Zheng M, et al. Functional exhaustion of antiviral lymphocytes in COVID-19 patients. Cell Mol Immunol. 2020 May;17(5):533-535. doi: 10.1038/s41423-020-0402-2

68 COVID‑19 Patients

Severe vs Moderate Cases

Total lymphocytes, CD8+ T cells and NK cells (absolute count)
CD8+ T cells and NK cells expressing CD107a (%)
CD8+ T cells and NK cells producing GZMB, IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF (%)
NKG2A+ exhausted CD8+ T cells and NK cells (%)

Zheng H, et al. Elevated exhaustion levels and reduced functional diversity of T cells in peripheral blood may predict severe progression in COVID-19 patients. Cell Mol Immunol. 2020 May;17(5):541-543. doi: 10.1038/s41423-020-0401-3

6 Healthy Controls

16 COVID‑19 Patients

Severe vs Moderate vs Healthy Cases

CD4+ T cells producing IFN-α or TNF (%)
Polyfunctional CD8+ T cells producing IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF (%)
HLA-DR+ activated CD8+ T cells (%)
PD-1+ CTLA-4+ TIGIT+ exhausted CD8+ T cells (%)

Zhou Y, et al. Pathogenic T cells and inflammatory monocytes incite inflammatory storm in severe COVID-19 patients. Natl Sci Rev. 2020 June;7(6):998-1002. doi: 10.1093/nsr/nwaa041

33 COVID‑19 Patients

ICU vs No ICU Care

Total T cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, monocytes, NK cells (absolute count)
PD-1+TIM-3+ exhausted CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (%)
CD4+ T cells producing IL-6 and GM-CSF (%)
CD14+CD16+ monocytes producing IL-6 and GM-CSF (%)

Diao B, et al. Reduction and functional exhaustion of T cells in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Front Immunol. May 2020. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.00827

40 Healthy Subjects

522 COVID‑19 Patients

ICU vs No ICU Care

Total T cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (absolute count)
PD-1+ exhausted CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (%)
Serum amounts of IL-6, IL-10, TNF (pg/mL)

Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, et al. Complex immune dysregulation in COVID-19 patients with severe respiratory failure. Cell Host Microbe. 2020 June;27(6):992-1000.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2020.04.009

54 COVID‑19 Patients

Macrophage Activated Syndrome vs Dysregulated Immune Response vs Intermediate Immune Response

Total CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, NK and B cells (absolute count)
HLA-DR expression on monocytes (absolute number of molecules/cell)
Neutrophils and macrophages (absolute count)
Serum amounts of IL-6 (pg/mL)

De Biasi S, et al. Marked T cell activation, senescence, exhaustion and skewing towards TH17 in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Nat Commun. 2020 July;11(1):3434. doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-17292-4

20 Healthy Subjects

21 COVID‑19 Patients

COVID‑19 Patients vs Healthy Subjects

CD8+ naïve and central memory T cells (%)
CD4+ and CD8+ TEMRA (%)
HLA-DR+ CD38+ activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (%)
PD-1+ CD57+ exhausted/senescent CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (%)
Naïve Tregs (%)
CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing CD107a (%)
CD8+ T cells producing IL-2 or IL-17 (%)
CD4+ T cells producing IL-2, IFN-α , TNF or IL-17 (%)
Polyfunctional CD4+ T cells producing IL-2 and IL-17 (%)
Serum amounts of CXCL6, IFN-γ, Galectin-1, -3, -9, IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-17, MICA, MIP-2 (CXCL2), CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, TNF (pg/mL)

Maucourant C, et al. Natural killer cell immunotypes related to COVID-19 disease severity. Sci Immunol. 2020 August;5(50). doi: 10.1126/sciimmunol.abd6832

27
COVID-19 Patients

Severe vs Moderate Cases

Total NK cells, CD56bright and CD56dim NK cells (absolute count)
Ki67+ activated NK cells (%)
CD57+NKG2C+ adaptive NK cells (%)

Mathew D, et al. Deep immune profiling of COVID-19 patients reveals distinct immunotypes with therapeutic implications. Science. 2020 July;6508(369). doi: 10.1126/science.abc8511

60 Healthy Donors

36 Recovered Donors

125 COVID-19 Patients

COVID-19 Patients vs Recovered Donors vs Healthy Donors

T cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (%)
CD8+ effector memory RA T cells (%)
CD4+ effector memory T cells (%)
Ki67+ HLA-DR+ CD38+ activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (%)
Activated circulating Tfh cells (%)
CD27+CD38+ plasmablasts (%)
Memory B cells (%)

Sanchez-Cerillo I, et al. COVID-19 severity associates with pulmonary redistribution of CD1c+ DC and inflammatory transitional and nonclassical monocytes. J Clin Invest. 2020 August;140335. doi: 10.1172/JCI140335

22 Healthy Donors

66 COVID-19 Patients

Critical vs Severe vs Mild vs Healthy Cases

CD123+ plasmacytoid DCs (%)
CD141+ conventional DCs (%)
CD1c conventional DCs (%)
Classical and nonclassical monocytes (%)

Kuri-Cervantes L, et al. Comprehensive mapping of immune perturbations associated with severe COVID-19. Sci Immunol. 2020 Jul;5(49):eabd7114. doi: 10.1126/sciimmunol.abd7114

12 Healthy Donors

7 Recovered Donors

27 COVID-19 Patients

Severe vs Moderate vs Recovered vs Healthy Cases

CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, dendritic cells, CD56bright and CD56dim NK cells, MAIT cells and innate lymphoid cells (%)
CD21+ CD27+ B cells (%)
Neutrophiles, granulocytes and monocytes (%)
HLA-DR+ CD38+ activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (%)
CD27+CD38+ plasmablasts (%)
Perforin+ granzyme+ cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (%)
PD-1+ CD4+ T cells (%)
CD21- CD27- B cells (%)

The information on COVID-19 presented in the table above was compiled in October 2020.
The studies reported here have not been independently validated or verified by BD.
All BD reagents used in these studies are for Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.

 

Application data

BD Biosciences enables COVID-19 research by providing solutions for a comprehensive immunophenotypic, functional and transcriptional analysis of immune cells.

 

Flow Cytometry

  • Assessment of immunophenotypic and functional changes in cells of the innate (e.g., monocytes, NK and dendritic cells) and adaptive (e.g., T and B cells) immune system
  • Measurement of cytokines responsible for or associated with cytokine storm syndrome and/or hypercytokinemia
  • Functional assays to assess antigen-specific T cell responses to viral epitopes

 

Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting

  • Purification of antigen-specific T or B cells for vaccine efficacy testing or generation of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies
  • Purification of immune cells of interest for downstream single-cell multiomic analysis

 

Single-Cell Multiomics

  • Profiling immune cells of interest via targeted or whole transcriptome analysis
  • Analysis of T or B cell receptor repertoire and assessment of cell clonality 
  • Enhanced immune cell characterization and signature discovery through simultaneous analysis of protein and mRNA

 

View product information, application data and scientific resources for assays performed on healthy human or murine cells that can also be potentially applicable to COVID-19 research.

Technology

Application

Description

Resources

Flow cytometry

Immunophenotyping

Dried antibody cocktail for immunophenotypic characterization of human naïve, memory and effector T cells

See Product Description

Dried antibody cocktail for immunophenotypic characterization of human regulatory T cells

See Product Description

Dried antibody cocktail for immunophenotypic characterization of human monocytes

See Product Description

Assessment of markers associated with T cell exhaustion

Download Data Sheet

Immunophenotypic characterization of CD4+ T helper cells, Tregs and T follicular helper cells

Download Panel Sheet

Immunophenotypic and functional characterization of polyfunctional T cells

Download Panel Sheet

Immunophenotypic characterization of human NK cells

View Webinar

Download Data Sheet

Immunophenotypic characterization of human B cells

Download Data Sheet

Immunophenotypic characterization of murine dendritic cells

Download Data Sheet

Broad immunophenotypic characterization of major human immune cell lineages

Download Data Sheet

Broad immunophenotypic characterization of major murine immune cell lineages

Download Data Sheet

Functional assays

Proliferation, degranulation and intracellular cytokine analysis to assess CD8+ T cell activation

Download Data Sheet

Apoptosis, degranulation and intracellular cytokine analysis to assess NK cell cytotoxicity

Download Data Sheet

Intracellular cytokine analysis to assess the response of human dendritic cells to Toll-like Receptor agonists

Download Data Sheet

Quantitation of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines produced by activated T cells using BD® Cytometric Bead Array (CBA)

Download Data Sheet

Cell sorting and single-cell multiomics

Deep cell characterization and cell signature discovery

Identification of immunophenotypic and molecular signatures of chronically stimulated human T cells

Download Scientific Poster

View Webinar

Workflow for discovery and confirmation of cell signatures defining human innate lymphoid cell subsets

Download Data Sheet

View Webinar

Deep characterization of human regulatory T cells

Download Data Sheet

Reagent Solutions
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Reagent solutions for COVID-19 research

During this challenging time, researchers at the forefront of COVID-19 research need tools to power deeper cellular analysis. BD Biosciences research reagents include innovative dyes and a broad portfolio of human-specific antibodies to deliver more resolution and flexibility for experimental design, saving valuable samples and accelerating the time to critical insights.

Optimized Panels, Kits and Assays

Readily available optimized antibody cocktails, gene panels, kits and recommended multicolor flow cytometry panels shown in the tables below can help expedite experiments relevant to COVID-19 research.

Research Area
Research Application  Product Solution(s)

 

 

Viral Immune Response 

 

 

Identification of naïve and different memory T cell subsets in human whole blood

BD Horizon™ Dri Memory T Cell*

Identification of naïve and different effector regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets in human whole blood

BD Horizon™ Dri Treg Cell*

Identification of classical (M1), intermediate (M2) and nonclassical (M3) monocyte subsets in human whole blood

BD Horizon™ Dri MonoSet Panel*

Targeted human immune gene panel (399 genes) relevant to phenotyping human immune cells

BD Rhapsody™ Human Immune Response Panel

Targeted mouse immune gene panel (397 genes) relevant to phenotyping mouse immune cells

BD Rhapsody™ Mouse Immune Response Panel

Targeted human T cell gene panel (259 genes) relevant to T cell biology

BD Rhapsody™ Human T-Cell Expression Panel

Whole transcriptome analysis (WTA) enables identification of the most differentially expressed genes in your samples. The WTA data can be used for cell type identification and to construct a targeted panel tailored for your samples of interest

BD Rhapsody™ WTA Reagent Kit 4 Pack

 

 

Cytokine Analysis

 

 

Cytometric bead array to measure human cytokine(s) in serum, plasma and cell culture supernatant samples 

BD® CBA Human Inflammatory Cytokine Kit 

BD® CBA Human Th1/Th2 Cytokine Kit 
BD® CBA Human Th1/Th2 Cytokine Kit II 
BD® CBA Human Th1/Th2/Th17 Cytokine Kit

 

 

Vaccine Research 
Biomarkers 
Therapeutics

 

 

Detection of T and B cell clonotypes in samples of interest 

Validated V(D)J CDR3 protocol that works with BD Rhapsody™ Targeted Panels, BD® Single-Cell Multiplexing Kit, and BD® AbSeq Antibodies

*Please contact your sales representative to request a quote.

Research Area Research Application Recommended Research Panel
Viral Immune Response

Assess the expression of multiple T cell inhibitory receptors
(PD-1, TIM-3, LAG-3, CTLA-4, BTLA, TIGIT) on naïve and
different memory T cell subsets

T Cell Exhaustion Panel
Marker Dye Clone Cat. No.

CD3

PerCP-Cy5.5

UCHT1

560835

CD4

APC-R700

RPA-T4

564975

CD8

APC-H7

SK1

560179

CD45RA

BV650

HI100

563963

CD197 (CCR7)

FITC

150503

561271

CD95

BV480

DX2

746675

TIGIT

BV421

741182

747844

CD152 (CTLA-4)

PE

BNI3

555853

CD223 (LAG-3)

Alexa Fluor™ 647

T47-530

565716

CD272 (BTLA)

BV605

J168-540

743986

CD279 (PD-1)

PE-Cy7

EH12.1

561272

CD366 (TIM-3)

BV786

7D3

742857

Identification of T helper cell (Th) subsets (Th1, Th2, Th17, Th22), follicular T helper cell (Tfh) subsets, regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets, and follicular regulatory T cell (Tfr) subsets

T Cell Subset Panel
Marker Dye Clone Cat. No

Live/Dead

7-AAD

N/A

559925

CD3

Alexa Fluor™ 700

UCHT1

557943

CD4

APC-H7

SK3

641398

CD45RA

BV605

HI100

562886

CD127

BV711

HIL-7R-M21

563165

CD25

BB515

2A3

564467

CD183 (CXCR3)

PE-Cy7

1C6/CXCR3

560831

CD185 (CXCR5)

BV480

RF8B2

566142

CD194 (CCR4)

BV421

1G1

562579

CD196 (CCR6)

BV786

11A9

563704

CD294 (CRTH2)

PE

BM16

563665

CCR10

APC

1B5

564771

BD Biosciences also offers a large and diverse portfolio of high-quality reagents to meet your specific experimental needs and enables the optimization and design of your own assay. Explore the availability of additional reagents relevant to different areas of COVID-19 research.

 

Immunophenotyping and Cell Sorting

The immune response to a virus such as SARS-CoV-2 can be tracked through cells and markers in the blood. Multicolor flow cytometry is one of the most powerful tools with which to identify, for example, alterations in the immune cell landscape in response to viral infection. BD Biosciences has a broad catalog of flow cytometry reagents to aid in the analysis and isolation of cells of the innate and adaptive immune system.

 

For example, T cells are a key component of viral immunity, not only indirectly fighting viral infections, but also in helping to mount a successful antibody response to provide lasting immunity. The table below shows a representative list of high-quality, flow cytometry–tested antibodies available in a broad range of colors that enable a comprehensive study of murine and human T cell biology.

Type of Cell CD8+ Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTLs) CD8+ Exhausted CTLs CD4+ Th1 CD4+ Th17 CD4+ Tfh CD4+ Tregs

Main Function

Kill virus-infected cells

Activated but have lost cytotoxic activity

Promote cell-mediated response

Enhance neutrophil and macrophage recruitment

Regulate development of antigen specific B cell development and antibody production

Immune regulation

Pathogens Targeted

Viruses and some intracellular pathogens

 

Intracellular pathogens

Extracellular pathogens

   

Extracellular Markers

CD8

CD279 (PD-1)
CD152 (CTLA-4)
CD223 (LAG-3)
CD366 (TIM-3)
TIGIT
CD159a (NKG2A)

CD4
CD183 (CXCR3)

CD4
CD196 (CCR6)

CD4
CD185 (CXCR5)

CD4
CD25

Differentiation Cytokines

   

IFN-γ
IL-2
IL-12

TGF-β
IL-6
IL-1
IL-21
IL-23

IL-12
IL-6 

TGF-β
IL-12

Hallmark Cytokines

IFN-γ
TNF
IL-2

 

IFN-γ
TNF
IL-2

IL-17A
IL-17F
IL-21
TNF

IL-21

TGF-β
IL-10

Transcription Factors

T-bet
Eomes

IRF4

T-bet
Stat1
Stat6

RORγt

Bcl-6
MAF

FoxP3
Smad3
Stat5

Cytokine Response

Proper cytokine response is important for the clearance of any virus. In the case of COVID-19, early research suggests that overactive responses leading to cytokine release syndrome may contribute to more severe presentation of the disease.1,2 Some cytokines that have been identified as abnormally high in COVID-19 samples include:

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BD Biosciences offers different solutions for comprehensive measurement of cytokine production, either at the single-cell (intracellular flow cytometry, BD FastImmune™ Cytokine Detection System) or bulk level (BD® Cytometric Bead Array, ELISA) for COVID-19 research.

 

BD FastImmune™ Cytokine Detection System

With streamlined and highly reproducible intracellular cytokine staining, the BD FastImmune™ System is designed to meet the needs of applied research on human samples. As a complete and optimized system, it is particularly well suited for research studies assessing immune responses to virus or vaccine candidates.

 

BD Biosciences provides a range of BD FastImmune™ Multicolor or Single-Color Cytokine Reagents, produced under RUO (GMP) conditions, for antibody staining, including selected sample-activation and sample-processing reagents. 

 

Available cocktails:

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Selected list of relevant single-color BD FastImmune™ Reagents for analysis of cytokine and degranulation marker expression.

Target APC FITC PE Activating Reagents
CD107A 641581      
CD2/CD2R       340366
CD28/CD49d Costimulatory Reagent       347690
IFN-γ 341117 340449 340452  
IL-13     340508  
IL-1ra     340525  
IL-1α   340513 340514  
IL-1β   340515 340516  
IL-2 341116 340448 340450  
IL-4     340451  
IL-6   340526 340527  
IL-8   340509 340510  
TNF-α 340534 340511 340512  

BD® Cytometric Bead Array (CBA)

BD® CBA Solutions are available in preconfigured kits or in an open, configurable format for unique needs.
 

BD® CBA Flex Sets provide an open and configurable method of detection so that researchers can build their own multiplexes for protein quantitation as low as 10 pg/mL.
 

BD® CBA Enhanced Sensitivity Flex Sets are capable of detecting cytokine concentrations as low as 0.274 pg/mL.
 

BD® CBA Kits are preconfigured for achieving consistent results for routine panels.
 

Selected list of relevant BD® CBA Flex Sets:

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ELISAs

BD Biosciences offers three convenient ELISA reagent formats for quantitation of cytokines and other soluble proteins.
 

Individual reagents are composed of unlabeled capture antibodies, biotinylated detection antibodies and protein standards offering a wide range of specificities and assay design flexibility. BD OptEIA™ Sets include reagents for five or twenty 96-well plates and pre-coated 96-well plates. All three BD Biosciences sandwich ELISA formats provide fast, easy quantitation of soluble analytes and total response analysis.
 

Selected list of relevant BD OptEIA™ ELISA Sets:

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BD® AbSeq Antibodies

Utilize the cutting-edge antibody-oligo technology in the form of BD® AbSeq Antibodies to probe up to 100 different cell surface proteins at a single-cell level, while simultaneously performing single-cell RNA analyses. Multiomic research using BD® AbSeq Antibodies enables deeper characterization of your immune populations of interest and the potential discovery of novel cell immune signatures.

References

  1. Shi Y, Wang Y, Shao C, et al. COVID-19 infection: the perspectives on immune responses. Cell Death Differ. 2020;27(5):1451-1454. doi: 10.1038/s41418-020-0530-3.

  2. Cossarizza A, De Biasi S, Guaraldi G, Girardis M, Mussini C. SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19: cytometry and the new challenge for global health. Cytometry A. 2020;97(4):340-343. doi: 10.1002/cyto.a.24002.
Instrument Solutions
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Instrument solutions for COVID-19 research

Cell Analyzers

Flow cytometry has been a  trusted approach to analyze cells and sort them to near-purity (~98%) for decades, and more recently, the analysis of small entities such as virus, exosomes and extracellular vesicles have become more mainstream. BD Biosciences portfolio of cell analyzers offers the solutions necessary for your COVID-19 related research experiments. 

 

BD FACSymphony™ 

Offering customized solutions for high-parameter analysis, the BD FACSymphony™ Cell Analyzers can scale up to meet your multicolor needs. When your SARS-CoV-2 research relies on either broad or deep high-parameter phenotypic characterization of specific subpopulations of immune cells, rely on the BD FACSymphony™ Analyzer. 

Learn More
 
BD FACSymphony™ A5 product image.
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BD FACSLyric™ 

The BD FACSLyric™ Flow Cytometer is upgradeable from 4 to 12 colors and offers high resolution and simplified standardization across instruments and labs, enabling collaboration and accelerating translational research. These make the BD FACSLyric™ Flow Cytometer a powerful tool for COVID-19 research. For more information on the research use of the BD FACSLyric™ Flow Cytometer contact your local representative.

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BD FACSCelesta™ 

The BD FACSCelesta™ Flow Cytometer is designed to make high-performance, multicolor flow cytometry accessible to individual labs analyzing up to 14 parameters. Drive your fundamental research in viral immune response forward without waiting for the core lab. 

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Cell Sorters

BD has led the way for 40 years in cell sorting. BD sorters combined with custom biosafety cabinets with integrated aerosol management systems from The Baker Company have been verified to provide product and personnel protection according to several bioprotection standards. In addition, the BD FACSAria™ product family has been verified using the recommended Cyclex-d/Dragon Green microsphere assay.1 Information about a new SARS-CoV-2 sorting protocol is available at the ISAC Biosafety website.

 

BD FACSMelody™ 

A truly easy-to-use cell sorter for your own lab, the BD FACSMelody™ with 4-way sorting capability makes the complex world of flow cytometry and sorting available to more researchers. It combines proven BD technology with new automation and simplified software to deliver high-performance results in less time. The BD FACSMelody™ Cell Sorter provides an easy solution for purification of immune cells of interest for downstream functional or multiomic assays for research use.

 

Additional resources: 
Microbiological Test Report – BD FACSMelody™ Cell Sorter

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BD FACSAria™ Fusion 

The BD FACSAria™ Fusion Cell Sorter delivers exceptional multicolor performance and ease-of-use, combined with best-in-class biosafety expertise for an advanced cell sorter and biosafety solution. Purification of antigen-specific T and B cells for downstream functional assays is a major application in vaccine research, and the BD FACSAria™ Fusion Cell Sorter is built to deliver on this front.

 

Additional resources: 
Microbiological Test Report – BD FACSAria™ Fusion Cell Sorter

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Single-Cell Multiomics

BD Rhapsody™ Single-Cell Analysis System 

Perform multiomic analyses by simultaneously probing for protein and RNA expression in immune cells with the BD Rhapsody™ Single-Cell Analysis System. The multiomic data generated may unlock discoveries of novel immune subsets—enabling the identification molecular drivers of immune cell activation and exhaustion in response to viral infections. Identification and tracking of clonotypes in response to a vaccine may also be achieved through T and B cell receptor repertoire analysis leveraging the BD single-cell solution. 

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Reference

Perfetto SP, Hogarth PJ, Monard S, et al. Novel impactor and microsphere-based assay used to measure containment of aerosols generated in a flow cytometer cell sorter. Cytometry A. 2019;95(2):173-182. doi: 10.1002/cyto.a.23680. 

Data Analysis
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Data analysis

BD Biosciences offers powerful informatics tools to complement your flow cytometry and multiomic analysis. These workflows are used by scientists in the lab to enable data insights in infectious disease and vaccine research. Supporting scientific research is our top priority.

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Flow Cytometry Analysis

FlowJo™ Software is the leading platform for single-cell flow cytometry analysis that helps your research stand out with accessible features for immunophenotyping, cell cycle, proliferation, kinetics studies, quantitative population comparison, plate screening assays and more.

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Screenshot of FlowJo™ interface on a computer.
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RNA-Seq Analysis

SeqGeq™ v1.6 Software analyzes data from RNA-Seq and single-cell RNA-Seq experiments, providing tools to extract genes and cells of interest and putting transcriptome analyses back in the hands of bench scientists. Explore, visualize and shape your next-generation sequencing data with interactive graphing tools that are designed to help you focus on the insights that matter most. 

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Screenshot of SeqGeq interface on a computer.
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COVID-19 Support
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BD Cares

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the world of healthcare as we know it has changed, and hospitals and laboratories are facing  unprecedented challenges as a result.

 

At BD, we take our role as your science partner of choice seriously, and we understand that whether you’re on the frontlines, working in a laboratory behind the scenes, or doing your part by socially distancing, the role you play is invaluable. Now more than ever, scientific discoveries and clinical research must continue to flow.

 

We are here to support you every step of the way:

  • Enhancing instrument support capabilities. For a limited time, we are offering complimentary remote instrument diagnostics and serviceability through BD Assurity Linc™ Remote Systems Management Software in addition to virtual instrument training.
  • Increasing opportunities to further your flow cytometry knowledge and earn CE credit through virtual educational webinars. 
  • Providing limited-time special offers on instrument and reagents. 

 

Together, we will make it through this pandemic and emerge strong.

Remote Support

BD Assurity Linc™ Remote Systems Management Software

In times of limited onsite interactions due to COVID-19 restrictions, BD has reinforced its remote support capabilities. BD Assurity Linc™ Remote Services, now powered by BD RSS technology, provides remote access into BD systems, allowing BD Service and Support teams to monitor your instruments and address technical issues remotely in a timely manner. 

 

Enjoy the benefits of reduced service visits, faster issue resolution and high-level security. 

 

If you are interested in installing this software or learning more, please contact GMB-AssurityLinc@bd.com.

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Instrument Support

Remote instrument diagnostics and serviceability through BD Assurity Linc™ Remote Services

BD Assurity Linc™ Remote Services enables the BD team to remotely monitor your instruments, address technical issues and potentially repair your instruments—with no on-site service visit required. In an effort to keep our associates, customers and communities safe, BD is offering this service at no cost to you for a limited time.

 

Contact GMB-AssurityLinc@bd.com to activate your instrument.

 

Virtual instrument training and troubleshooting

A dedicated team of 200+ BD associates is available to remotely address your needs. We have the required tools to execute virtual instrument training and support—whether it’s through FaceTime, Microsoft Teams or other channels.

 

On-site support

Where our on-site support is needed to ensure immediate patient care, such as technology installation/service and clinical support, BD Field Service Engineers will be there at your request. We are taking precautions to protect our associates, customers and patients by following guidance from the World Health Organization, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and each of our customers’ guidelines on access to their facilities.

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Class 1 Laser Product.

For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.

Alexa Fluor is a trademark of Life Technologies Corporation. 

Cy is a trademark of Global Life Sciences Solutions Germany GmbH or an affiliate doing business as Cytiva. 

FaceTime is a trademark of Apple Inc. Microsoft Teams is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

The information provided herein is not meant to be used, nor should it be used, to diagnose or treat any medical condition. All content, including text, graphics, images and information etc., contained in or available through this literature is for general information purposes only. For diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition, please consult your physician/doctor. Becton Dickinson India Private Limited and or its affiliates, its employees are not liable for any damages/claims to any person in any manner whatsoever.