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SARS-CoV-2 immunology: Understanding the interactions between
SARS-CoV-2 and the host immune system


We are in a global pandemic. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread worldwide, there is a pressing need to understand the biological mechanisms determining disease progression and severity. Early research studies have reported alterations in the immune cell composition and dysfunctional immune responses in COVID-19 patients. The extent of the immune dysregulation appears to correlate with the severity of COVID-19 disease. A deeper understanding of the interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and the host immune system is required to further understand the pathogenesis of this disease and identify biomarkers that could, potentially, be used to predict, monitor or prevent COVID-19 progression.


Flow cytometry—a critical tool in COVID-19 research

Flow cytometry plays a critical role in the study of COVID-19 immune response due to the ability to simultaneously measure expression of multiple proteins at the single-cell level. Flow cytometry is therefore routinely used to assess immunophenotypic and functional changes (cytokine production, proliferation, cytotoxicity) in response to viral infection. Some of these assays are also used in vaccine research to assess vaccine candidate immunogenicity.


Multicolor flow cytometry panels for COVID-19 research

Design and optimization of multicolor panels can be challenging and time consuming. To help you accelerate your research, we have created a repository of pre-optimized multicolor flow cytometry panels for the identification of immunological changes previously reported in COVID-19 patients. The panels were designed using best practices and to deliver the best performance, defined as the ability to resolve populations of interest. The panels have been tested on non-COVID-19 healthy human blood samples.


The BD COVID-19 multicolor panel eBook provides access to preoptimized panels, protocols, tips and tricks, and information on relevant research publications

Fifteen pre-optimized multicolor flow cytometry panels for immunophenotypic and functional characterization of relevant human immune cells.


Identification of differentiated, senescent and exhausted human T cell subsets using the T cell senescence exhaustion panel.


Tips and tricks and detailed protocols for optimal experiment setup


Workflow for human surface marker staining


References to seminal publications describing immunological changes in COVID-19 patients are included.


BD panel design experts are available for consultation and to help customize multicolor flow cytometry panels that meet your specific needs.

Download the BD COVID-19 eBook.

For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.