The 1D12 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to CD365, the T-cell immunoglobulin mucin receptor 1 (TIM-1). TIM-1 is expressed on kidney epithelial cells, T cells, and some hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD365 (TIM-1) is a type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein that serves as a receptor for hepatitis A virus and is encoded by the HAVCR1 (Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1) gene. TIM-1 also serves as a receptor for phosphatidylserine which is exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells. TIM-1 can reportedly mediate the uptake of apoptotic cells through the recognition of phosphatidylserine and thus help maintain tissue homeostasis and self-tolerance. TIM-1 is likewise known as Kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1). It is highly expressed by cancerous kidneys, and upregulated in the proximal tubular epithelium and shed into the urine during acute and chronic kidney injury. CD365 (TIM-1) also functions as a costimulatory molecule for immune cells. It is expressed by activated CD4+ T cells and regulates the effector functions (eg, enhanced cytokine production) and survival of differentiated T cells, including those mediating Th2-like immune responses. Other ligands have been described for TIM-1 including TIM-4 and LMIR5 (also known as CD300b) which are expressed by myeloid cells. With respect to disease associations, the HAVCR1 gene has been linked to asthma, allergy, and some autoimmune diseases.
The antibody was conjugated to BD Horizon™ BV650 which is part of the BD Horizon Brilliant™ Violet family of dyes. This dye is a tandem fluorochrome of BD Horizon BV421 with an Ex Max of 405-nm and an acceptor dye with an Em Max at 650-nm. BD Horizon BV650 can be excited by the violet laser and detected in a filter used to detect APC-like dyes (eg, 660/20-nm filter). Due to the excitation and emission characteristics of the acceptor dye, there will be spillover into the APC and Alexa Fluor® 700 detectors. However, the spillover can be corrected through compensation as with any other dye combination.