FITC Rat Anti-Mouse TNF
Clone MP6-XT22 (RUO)
- Brand BD Pharmingen™
- Concentration 0.5 mg/ml
- Isotype Rat IgG1
- Reactivity Mouse (QC Testing)
Intracellular staining (flow cytometry) (Routinely Tested)
- Immunogen Recombinant Mouse TNF
- Storage Buffer Aqueous buffered solution containing ≤0.09% sodium azide.
- Regulatory Status RUO
Regulatory Status Legend
The MP6-XT22 antibody specifically binds to mouse Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF, also known as TNF-α). TNF is produced by many activated cell types including monocytes, macrophages, astrocytes, granulocytes, mast cells, T and B lymphocytes, NK cells, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, adipocytes, and certain tumor cells. Activated cells express type II transmembrane TNF glycoproteins that associate as homotrimeric complexes. After enzymatic cleavage, the extracellular regions of membrane TNF are shed as soluble homotrimers. TNF is a potent multifunctional cytokine that can exert regulatory and cytotoxic effects on a wide range of normal lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells and tumor cells. Although TNF serves as a primary mediator in protective immune responses against microbial and viral pathogens, it can also drive systemic pathophysiologic responses including septic shock, cachexia and autoimmune diseases. Mouse TNF exerts its biological activities by binding and signaling through cell surface membrane Type I and Type II TNF Receptors (aka, TNFRI/CD120a and TNFRII/CD120b, respectively).
This antibody is routinely tested by flow cytometric analysis. Other applications were tested at BD Biosciences Pharmingen during antibody development only or reported in the literature.
FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate, is a fluorochrome with a molecular weight of 389 Da. FITC is sensitive to pH changes and photobleaching. Due to nearly identical excitation and emission properties but different spillover characteristics, FITC and Alexa Fluor® 488 cannot be used simultaneously. FITC is relatively dim and should be reserved for highly expressed markers whenever possible.
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Preparation and Storage
The monoclonal antibody was purified from tissue culture supernatant or ascites by affinity chromatography.
The antibody was conjugated with FITC under optimum conditions, and unreacted FITC was removed.
Store undiluted at 4°C and protected from prolonged exposure to light. Do not freeze.
- Since applications vary, each investigator should titrate the reagent to obtain optimal results.
- Please refer to www.bdbiosciences.com/pharmingen/protocols for technical protocols.
- Caution: Sodium azide yields highly toxic hydrazoic acid under acidic conditions. Dilute azide compounds in running water before discarding to avoid accumulation of potentially explosive deposits in plumbing.
- Use of these products to measure activation antigens expressed on mononuclear cell subsets for the purpose of monitoring immunoregulatory status can fall under one or more claims of the following patents: US Patent Nos. 5,445,939, 5,656,446, 5,843,689; European Patent No. 319,543; Canadian Patent No. 1,296,622; Australian Patent No. 615,880; and Japanese Patent No. 2,769,156.
Immunofluorescent Staining and Flow Cytometry: The FITC-conjugated MP6-XT22 antibody can be used for multicolor immunofluorescent staining and flow cytometric analyses to identify and enumerate TNF producing cells within mixed cell populations (see figure). For optimal immunofluorescent staining with flow cytometric analysis, this anti-cytokine antibody should be titrated (≤ 0.5 µg mAb/million cells). For specific methodology, please visit our web site, www.bdbiosciences.com, and go to the protocols section or the chapter on intracellular staining in the Immune Function Handbook.
A useful control for demonstrating specificity of staining is either of the following: 1) pre-block the conjugated MP6-XT22 antibody with ligand (e.g., recombinant mouse TNF; Cat. No 554589) prior to staining, or 2) pre-block the fixed/permeabilized cells with unlabeled MP6-XT22 antibody (Cat. No 554416) prior to staining. The staining technique and use of blocking controls are described in detail by C. Prussin and D. Metcalfe. A suitable rat IgG1 isotype control for assessing the level of background staining on paraformaldehyde-fixed/saponin-permeabilized mouse cells is FITC-R3-34 (Cat. No 554684); use at comparable concentrations to antibody of interest.