APC Annexin V
- Brand BD Pharmingen™
Flow cytometry (Routinely Tested)
- Storage Buffer Aqueous buffered solution containing BSA and ≤0.09% sodium azide.
- Regulatory Status RUO
Regulatory Status Legend
Apoptosis is a normal physiologic process which occurs during embryonic development as well as in maintenence of tissue homeostasis. The apoptotic program is characterized by certain morphologic features, including loss of plasma membrane asymmetry and attachment, condensation of the cytoplasm and nucleus, and internucleosomal cleavage of DNA. Loss of plasma membrane is one of the earliest features. In apoptotic cells, the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) is translocated from the inner to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane, thereby exposing PS to the external cellular environment. Annexin V is a 35-36 kDa Ca2+ dependent phospholipid-binding protein that has a high affinity for PS, and binds to cells with exposed PS. Annexin V may be conjugated to fluorochromes including APC. This format retains its high affinity for PS and thus serves as a sensitive probe for flow cytometric analysis of cells that are undergoing apoptosis. Since externalization of PS occurs in the earlier stages of apoptosis, APC Annexin V staining can identify apoptosis at an earlier stage than assays based on nuclear changes such as DNA fragmentation.
APC Annexin V staining precedes the loss of membrane integrity which accompanies the latest stages of cell death resulting from either apoptotic or necrotic processes. Therefore, staining with APC Annexin V is typically used in conjunction with a vital dye such as propidium iodide (PI) or 7-Amino-Actinomycin (7-AAD) to allow the investigator to identify early apoptotic cells (7-AAD negative, APC Annexin V positive). Viable cells with intact membranes exclude 7-AAD, whereas the membranes of dead and damaged cells are permeable to 7-AAD. For example, cells that are considered viable are both APC Annexin V and 7-AAD negative while cells that are in early apoptosis are APC Annexin V positive and 7-AAD negative, while cells that are in late apoptosis or already dead are both APC Annexin V and 7-AAD positive. This assay does not distinguish between cells that have undergone apoptotic death versus those that have died as a result of a necrotic pathway because in either case, the dead cells will stain with both APC Annexin V and 7-AAD. However, when apoptosis is measured over time, cells can be often tracked from APC Annexin V and 7-AAD negative (viable, or no measurable apoptosis), to APC Annexin V positive and 7-AAD negative (early apoptosis, membrane integrity is present) and finally to APC Annexin V and 7-AAD positive (end stage apoptosis and death). The movement of cells through these three stages suggests apoptosis. In contrast, a single observation indicating that cells are both APC Annexin V and 7-AAD positive, in of itself, reveals less information about the process by which the cells underwent their demise.
APC Annexin V is routinely tested by flow cytometric analysis. Other applications were tested at BD Biosciences Pharmingen during antibody development only or reported in the literature.
Allophycocyanin (APC), is an accessory photosynthetic pigment found in blue-green algae. Its molecular weight is approximately 105 kDa. APC has six phycocyanobilin chromophores per molecule, which makes it a very bright fluorochrome that is highly suitable for flow cytometry applications. Due to nearly identical excitation and emission properties but different spillover characteristics, APC and Alexa Fluor® 647 cannot be used simultaneously
Suggested Companion Products
Preparation and Storage
Store undiluted at 4°C and protected from prolonged exposure to light. Do not freeze.
- Since applications vary, each investigator should titrate the reagent to obtain optimal results.
- Please refer to www.bdbiosciences.com/pharmingen/protocols for technical protocols.
- Caution: Sodium azide yields highly toxic hydrazoic acid under acidic conditions. Dilute azide compounds in running water before discarding to avoid accumulation of potentially explosive deposits in plumbing.
- Source of all serum proteins is from USDA inspected abattoirs located in the United States.
- This APC-conjugated reagent can be used in any flow cytometer equipped with a dye, HeNe, or red diode laser.
- For fluorochrome spectra and suitable instrument settings, please refer to our Multicolor Flow Cytometry web page at www.bdbiosciences.com/colors.
APC Annexin V is a sensitive probe for identifying apoptotic cells, binding to negatively charged phospholipid surfaces (Kd of ~5 x 10e2) with a higher affinity for phosphatidylserine (PS) than most other phospholipids. APC Annexin V binding is calcium dependent and defined calcium and salt concentrations are required for optimal staining as described in the APC Annexin V Staining Protocol. Investigators should note that APC Annexin V flow cytometric analysis on adherent cell types (e.g HeLa, NIH 3T3, etc.) is not routinely tested as specific membrane damage may occur during cell detachment or harvesting. Methods for utilizing Annexin V for flow cytometry on adherent cell types, however, have been previously reported (Casiola-Rosen et al. and van Engelend et al.).
INDUCTION OF APOPTOSIS BY CAMPTOTHECIN
The following protocol is provided as an illustration on how APC Annexin V may be used on a cell line (Jurkat).
1. Prepare Camptothecin stock solution (Sigma-Aldrich Cat. No. C-9911): 1 mM in DMSO.
2. Jurkat T cells (ATCC TIB-152).
1. Add Camptothecin (final conc. 4-6 µM) to 1 x 10e6 Jurkat cells.
2. Incubate the cells for 4-6 hr at 37°C.
3. Proceed with the APC Annexin V Staining Protocol to measure apoptosis.
APC ANNEXIN V STAINING PROTOCOL
1. APC Annexin V: Included. Use 5 µl per test.
2. 7-Amino-Actinomycin D (7-AAD): Not included. 7-AAD (Cat.No. 559925) is a convenient, ready-to-use nucleic acid dye with fluorescence detectable in the far red range of the spectrum. Use 5 µl per test.
3. 10X Binding Buffer: Not Included. 0.1 M Hepes (pH 7.4) 1.4 M NaCl, 25 mM CaCl2. Store at 4°C. Alternatively, catalog number 556454 may be purchased.
1. Wash cells twice with cold PBS and then resuspend cells in 1X Binding Buffer at a concentration of 1 x 10e6 cells/ml.
2. Transfer 100 µl of the solution (1 x 10e5 cells) to a 5 ml culture tube.
3. Add 5 µl of APC Annexin V (for one and two color analysis) and 5 µl of 7-AAD (for two color analysis only).
4. Gently vortex the cells and incubate for 15 min at RT (25°C) in the dark.
5. Add 400 µl of 1X Binding Buffer to each tube. Analyze by flow cytometry within 1 hr.
SUGGESTED CONTROLS FOR SETTING UP FLOW CYTOMETRY
The following controls are used to set up compensation and quadrants:
1. Unstained cells.
2. Cells stained with APC Annexin V alone (no 7-AAD).
3. Cells stained with 7-AAD alone (no APC Annexin V).
Other Staining Controls
A cell line that can be easily induced to undergo apoptosis should be used to obtain positive control staining with APC Annexin V and/or APC Annexin V and 7-AAD. It is important to note that the basal level of apoptosis and necrosis varies considerably within a population. Thus, even in the absence of induced apoptosis, most cell populations will contain a minor percentage of cells that are positive for apoptosis (APC Annexin V positive, 7-AAD negative or APC Annexin V positive, 7-AAD positive).
The untreated population is used to define the basal level of apoptotic and dead cells. The percentage of cells that have been induced to undergo apoptosis is then determined by subtracting the percentage of apoptotic cells in the untreated population from percentage of apoptotic cells in the treated population. Since cell death is the eventual outcome of cells undergoing apoptosis, cells in the late stages of apoptosis will have a damaged membrane and stain positive for 7-AAD as well as for APC Annexin V. Thus, the assay does not distinguish between cells that have already undergone an apoptotic cell death and those that have died as a result of necrotic pathway, because in either case the dead cells will stain with both APC Annexin V and 7-AAD.