The 406288 monoclonal antibody specifically recognizes DNAX-activation Protein 12 (DAP12) which is also known as Killer-activating receptor-associated protein (KARAP) or PLOSL. DAP12 is encoded by TYROBP (TYRO protein tyrosine kinase binding protein). The 12 kDa DAP12 protein contains a short extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain that contains a single immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). DAP12 exists as a disulfide-linked homodimeric protein that is expressed by a variety of hematopoietic cells, including NK cells, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, mast cells, and some NKT cells and γδ T cells. DAP12 functions as a signal transducing adaptor protein that associates with a variety of receptors involved in the detection of pathogens or host damage, including CD158 members of the Killer cell immunoglobulin like receptors (KIR) gene family, CD94-NKG2C and CD94-NKG2E heterodimeric receptors, Triggering receptor expressed on monocytes 1 (TREM-1) and TREM-2, and the NKp44 (CD336) receptor. These associations are mediated by intramembranal ionic attraction between a DAP12 aspartic acid residue and a lysine residue in the cognate receptor. The association between these receptors leads to either cellular activation or inhibition through dual tyrosine phosphorylation of the ITAM sequence by Src family kinases and further downstream signaling.