Cancer can develop when cells escape normal growth control mechanisms through mutations in proto-oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. A characteristic of most oncogene and tumor suppressor gene products is that they are components of signal transduction pathways that are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis. PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog), also known as MMAC1 (mutated in multiple advanced cancers 1), is a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated at high frequency in multiple tumor types. The protein encoded by PTEN is a phosphatase that preferentially dephosphorylates phosphoinositide substrates. It is believed that a mechanism by which PTEN mutations cause tumors is the loss of its negative control on the phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway that regulates cell growth and survival. PTEN also plays a role in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells.
The A2B1 monoclonal antibody recognizes PTEN, regardless of phosphorylation status.
The antibody was conjugated to BD Horizon BV421 which is part of the BD Horizon Brilliant™ Violet family of dyes. With an Ex Max of 407-nm and Em Max at 421-nm, BD Horizon BV421 can be excited by the violet laser and detected in the standard Pacific Blue™ filter set (eg, 450/50-nm filter). BD Horizon BV421 conjugates are very bright, often exhibiting a 10 fold improvement in brightness compared to Pacific Blue conjugates.