The 3E2 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to CD54 (ICAM-1), a 95-kDa member of the Ig superfamily found on lymphocytes, vascular endothelium, high endothelial venules, epithelial cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. ICAM-1 is a ligand for LFA1 (CD11a/CD18) and Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18). Its expression is upregulated upon stimulation by inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and LPS. Studies with mouse Icam1-transfected antigen-presenting cells, with CD54-blocking antibodies, and in CD54-deficient mice indicate that CD54 participates in inflammatory reactions and antigen-specific immune responses. In addition, there is evidence that CD54 is a receptor involved in MHC-non-restricted responses to weakly immunogenic tumor cells. The 3E2 antibody has been reported to block in vitro and in vivo intracellular adhesion events involved in immune responses.
The antibody was conjugated to BD Horizon™ BUV563 which is part of the BD Horizon Brilliant™ Ultraviolet family of dyes. This dye is a tandem fluorochrome of BD Horizon BUV395 which has an Ex Max of 348 nm and an acceptor dye. The tandem has an Em Max at 563 nm. BD Horizon BUV563 can be excited by the 355 nm ultraviolet laser. On instruments with a 561 nm Yellow-Green laser, the recommended bandpass filter is 585/15 nm with a 535 nm long pass to minimize laser light leakage. When BD Horizon BUV563 is used with an instrument that does not have a 561 nm laser, a 560/40 nm filter with a 535 nm long pass may be more optimal. Due to the excitation and emission characteristics of the acceptor dye, there may be spillover into the PE and PE-CF594 detectors. However, the spillover can be corrected through compensation as with any other dye combination.